Learn Basic Architecture of the Linux Operating System?

LINUX   is type of Operating system that controls your Computer. LINUX is one of the most popular version of operating System. It is similar as UNIX.
Architecture of Linux consists of 5 parts.
1.User Application
2. GNU C Library                                
3.System Call
4. Kernel                                            
5. Hardware/Controller or Platform

These 5 parts are divided into two other parts in  LINUX Architecture. One is known as User Space and the other is Kernel Space. User Space is the Space in memory where user processes run. This space is above the Kernel. And this is protected. Kernel Space is the Space in memory where all kernel Services are provided kernel processes.  A  user has access to it only through the system call. A user process becomes a kernel process ,when it executes a system call. When system call is executed the arguments to the call are passed from user space to kernel space. User Application and GNU C library come into User Space. And System Call interface, kernel, kernel code come in kernel space. Whole is called Linux. At the top is user applications. User Applications are the commands used by operating system. User Applications are executed in user space. User Applications directly access  the GNU C library Commands. There is also a GNU C library which provides system Call interface. The system calls is the separation of kernel space from user space. Every operating system has many system calls. Then this system call interface connects to kernel. A kernel is really nothing more than a resource manager. Whether the resource being managed is a process, memory, or hardware device, the kernel manages and access to the resource between multiple competing users(both in the kernel and in user space). The kernel is like a server that response to the hardware interrupt requests and system calls. This Kernel provides procedure between User Space and Kernel Space. Kernel and  User applications occupies address spaces. The kernel occupies single address space. This kernel can be divided into two levels. The first level is system call interface that implements the basic function like read and write. The second is kernel code. This code is common for every operating system whose supported by Linux.

Linux System Architecture Also consists of following layers:

Hardware layer: Hardware layer consists of all peripheral devices like RAM, HDD, CPU.  ..                            
Kernel: Core component of Operating System, interacts directly with hardware, provides low level services to upper layer components. The Linux kernel includes device driver support for a large number of PC hardware devices (graphics cards, network cards, hard disks etc.), advanced processor and memory management features, and support for many different types of file systems. In the terms of the services, it provides to application programs and system utilities.
Shell: An interface to kernel, hiding complexity of kernel's functions from users. Takes commands from user and executes kernel's functions. A shell is the interface between the user, applications, utilities and the kernel of the operating system. The shell accepts and interprets commands, and forwards them to the kernel. Commands can be entered either from a command prompt or a script. Without a shell we can’t interface with the rest of the operating system. A Linux shell is comparable to the DOS in Windows.

Utilities: Utility programs giving user most of the functionalities of an operating systems. To form an operating system, we need tools and utilities. Utilities are used to manage the system and applications are programs like word processing.
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